URL rewriting Tips and Tricks in .htaccess – PHP

Hello friends !!

Today i want to give you some more .htaccess tips and tricks for url rewriting in PHP.

In my last post, i was show you basick url rewriting. In this post i will write some more .htaccess tricks for you.

Control Access

Being able to control access to certain areas of your server can be very useful. The following example demonstrates how to only allow access from those connecting from a 192.168.0 LAN IP pool. This could be easily modified to only allow access from a single remote IP address or addresses.

order deny,allow
deny from all
allow from 192.168.0.0/24

Shorter URLs

Shorter URLs are beneficial, as visitors that persist in typing full URLs won’t have to type as much, and they’re more memorable. Do they benefit SEO, even though the full URL contains the same keywords? I don’t know, maybe someone can tell me.

This example will rewrite a page requested as http://xyz.com/files/code/apache.zip to http://xyz.com/download.php?type=code&file=apache.

Options +FollowSymlinks
RewriteEngine on
RewriteRule ^files/(.+)/(.+).zip download.php?type=$1&file=$2 [nc]

Custom Error Documents

Creating custom documents gives your site a more professional look, as not only are you providing a ‘net’ to catch unsuspecting visitors when they follow a bad link and such like, but they also allow you to customise the style of the page so you can maintain your basic site design by adding HTML.

ErrorDocument 401 /error/401.php
ErrorDocument 403 /error/403.php
ErrorDocument 404 /error/404.php

Hide and Deny Files

Hiding and denying access to files is crucial to servers that have sensitive data held within files that may be accessible via the website(s) on it. The following example demonstrates how to prevent acces to any files ending with .log – and is case insensitive (i.e. .LoG / .lOG / .loG).

Order allow,deny
Deny from all
Satisfy All

Prevent Hotlinking

Preventing hotlinking can reduce bandwidth, by disallowing other websites from displaying images hosted on your server. The following rule basically says that if the referer is NOT xyz.com, run the following rule. The rule (on the next line) says that if the request is for a .gif, .jpg or.png then redirect the visitor to http://xyz.com/img/hotlink_f_o.png. I’ll leave you to work out what the ‘f_o’ stands for.

Options +FollowSymlinks
# no hot-linking
RewriteEngine On
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^$
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^http://(www\.)?xyz\.com/ [nc]
RewriteRule .*\.(gif|jpg|png)$ http://xyz/img/hotlink_f_o.png [nc]

Making Other Filetypes Executable

Ever wanted to make your site look like it runs off a new language such as .w00t files? Well you can with .htaccess! Adding this neat one-liner, you can request .w00t files, which will be served and interpreted as .php type files.

AddType application/x-httpd-php .w00t

Require SSL

Sometimes you will require an SSL connection. This following snippet will do just that!

# require SSL
SSLOptions +StrictRequire
SSLRequireSSL
SSLRequire %{HTTP_HOST} eq “domain.tld”
ErrorDocument 403 https://domain.tld# require SSL without mod_ssl
RewriteCond %{HTTPS} !=on [NC]
RewriteRule ^.*$ https://%{SERVER_NAME}%{REQUEST_URI} [R,L]

Force Media Downloads

Sometimes, when clicking on media files, the browser wants to play or stream it directly from itself. Using the following rules, media files (.avi/.mpg/.wmv/.mp3 in this example) will provide a download dialog box instead.

AddType application/octet-stream .avi
AddType application/octet-stream .mpg
AddType application/octet-stream .wmv
AddType application/octet-stream .mp3

Ban Selected User Agents

The following provides some examples for blocking requests to your server from certain user agents.

RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^FrontPage [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Java.* [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Microsoft.URL [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^MSFrontPage [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Offline.Explorer [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^[Ww]eb[Bb]andit [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Zeus [NC]
RewriteRule ^.*$ – [F]

I think these tricks are become helpful to all of you.

Thanks !!